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Four Essays on Birth Order |
(Note: some but not all of these errors have been corrected in the paperback edition. The page numbers are the same in the paperback edition.) |
Interactions: In his unpublished manuscript (January 25, 1998), Sulloway writes that he has taken account of the additional no-difference outcomes produced by studies that yielded interactions. In the case of a two-way interaction--where, for example, sex interacts with birth order in such a way that favorable results are found for boys but not for girls--he reports that he counted the results as one favorable outcome and one no-difference outcome; in the case of a three-way interaction, he reports that he counted all four possible outcomes. Since there were many interactions in the studies reviewed by E & A, this procedure would noticeably increase the number of findings per study. Thus, in order to end up with 196 findings, Sulloway's analysis must have included considerably fewer than the 116 studies I found in E & A (hence, fewer than 75,000 subjects). In his unpublished manuscript, Sulloway reports that he eliminated from his analysis, for a variety of reasons, a number of studies that E & A had considered acceptable (most of which were included in my tally). However, it also appears that he included in his analysis other studies that E & A had written off as unacceptable or inconclusive. I have been unable to determine the precise number of studies included in Sulloway's analysis. |
The 179 "Studies" (actually, Findings) in
Ernst & Angst's (1983) Text and Tables (pp. 93 - 189) in which Sibship Size
and/or Social Class Were Controlled, Listed Alphabetically by Researcher (see
The Nurture Assumption, pp. 368-374)
Summary: 52 findings
favorable to Sulloway's (1996) theory, 13 in the wrong direction, 109 no
difference, and 5 unclear
Researcher & Publication Date |
Control Method |
No. of Subjects |
Description of Subjects* |
Measuremt Method** |
Outcome re Sulloway's theory*** |
Ernst & Angst Page No. |
Abramson 73 |
sib size |
122 |
ch (black preschool) |
beh |
n |
139 & Table 29 |
Adams 67 |
soc cl |
? |
ch (grade sch) |
teachers' ratings |
f |
134 & Table 28 |
Adams 67 |
soc cl |
? |
ch (grade sch) |
peers' ratings |
n |
182 & Table 41 |
Adams 72 |
soc cl |
371 |
ch (4th & 5th gr) |
teachers' ratings |
f |
134 & Table 28 |
Alexander 66, 68 |
both |
1410 |
teen (hi sch males) |
peers' ratings |
u |
182 & Table 41 |
Ballante 73 |
sib size |
? |
teen |
self |
n |
162 |
Barrett 76 |
sib size |
857 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
172 & Table 38 |
Bartelt 73 |
intrafam |
258 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
95 & Table 17 |
Bartlett et al 68 |
soc cl |
31 |
ch (8-10 yr old males) |
? |
u |
103 & Table 19 |
Biegelson 76 |
sib size (=2) |
941 + 942 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
146 & Table 31 |
Biegelson 76 |
intrafam |
1883 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
95 & Table 17 |
Biegelson 76 |
sib size |
941 + 942 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
135 & Table 28 |
Blustein 67 |
sib size (=2) |
350 |
ch (grade sch) |
teachers' ratings |
f |
134 & Table 28 |
Blustein 67 |
sib size (=2) |
341 to 383 |
ch (4th-6th gr) |
teachers' ratings |
f |
125 & Table 25 |
Blustein 67 |
sib size |
350 |
ch (4th-6th gr) |
self |
n |
155 & Table 33 |
Boor 72 |
sib size |
116 |
college |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Brittain 66 |
sib size (=2) |
? |
teen (9th & 10th gr |
self |
n |
121 |
Casher 77 |
both |
127 |
ad (college males) |
beh |
f |
106 & Table 20 |
Catlin 72 |
soc cl |
1176 |
ch (3rd & 6th grade) |
self |
? |
103 & Table 19 |
Corneau 80 |
intrafam (size=2) |
64 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
u |
151 & Table 32 |
David 73 |
both |
79 |
ch (5th grade) |
beh |
n |
109 & Table 21 |
Davie et al 72 |
soc cl |
1548 |
ch (7 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
? |
157 & Table 34 |
De Avila 70 |
sib size, socially |
196 |
ch (6th gr) |
self |
f |
132 & Table 28 |
De Avila 70 |
sib size, middle- |
196 |
ch (6th gr) |
self |
f |
120 & Table 24 |
Dean 47 |
intrafam (sib size=2) |
40 |
ch (below age 7) |
parents' ratings |
f |
167 & Table 37 |
Dixon 80 |
soc cl |
419 |
teen (young black |
self |
n |
124 & Table 25 |
Elder 62a 62b |
both |
7274 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
f |
134 & Table 28 |
Elliot et al 70 |
intrafam (sib size=2) |
410 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
135 & Table 28 |
Eysenck et al 69 |
sib size |
4000 |
ch (11 yr) |
self |
n |
159 & Table 35 |
Eysenck et al 69 |
sib size |
4000 |
ch (11 yr) |
self |
n |
158 & Table 34 |
Falbo et al 79 |
both |
1041 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Farley 75 |
sib size |
141 |
ad (college females) |
self |
n |
159 & Table 35 |
Farley 75a |
sib size |
141 |
ad (college females) |
self |
n |
158 & Table 34 |
Farley 78a |
sib size |
50 |
ad (college females) |
self |
f |
151 & Table 32 |
Fox 76 |
soc cl |
122 |
in (kibbutz babies) |
beh |
f |
108 & Table 21 |
Frankel 68 |
sib size |
169 |
ch (6th grade) |
self |
n |
141 & Table 30 |
Frankel 68 |
both |
113 |
ch (6th grade) |
self |
n |
94 & Table 17 |
Frankel 68 |
sib size |
113 |
ch (6th gr) |
self |
n |
162 & Table 36 |
Glass et al 74 |
both |
2523 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
135 & Table 28 |
Gormly 68 |
sib size |
359 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
171 & Table 38 |
Hall 63 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
165 & Table 37 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
154 & Table 33 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
146 & Table 31 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
142 & Table 40 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
143 & Table 30 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
166 & Table 37 |
Hall 63, Hall et al 64 |
both |
104 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
163 & Table 36 |
Hall 77 |
sib size |
140 |
ad (college) |
self |
f |
142 & Table 40 |
Hardy 72 |
soc cl (middle- |
106 |
ch (black 5th & 6th grade) |
self |
f |
146 & Table 31 |
Harris 64, Harris et al 68 |
soc cl |
1200 |
teen (hi sch & prof sch) |
self |
f |
163 & Table 36 |
Hess 71 |
sib size |
? |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
124 & Table 25 |
Hornbostel et al 80 |
sib size (=2) |
120 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Jamieson 69 |
soc cl |
84 |
ch (10-12 yr) |
beh |
n |
101 & Table 18 |
Janisch 73 |
both |
300 |
teen (12th gr, varied samples) |
self |
n |
134 & Table 28 |
Kaltsounis 78 |
intrafam (4 brothers) |
36 |
ch (grade sch males) |
self |
? |
151 & Table 32 |
Kaplan 70 |
soc cl |
500 |
ad (adult males, Texans) |
self |
n |
155 & Table 33 |
Keetz 79 |
both |
182 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Klockars 68 |
sib size |
? |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
147 & Table 31 |
Klockars 68 |
both |
? |
ad (university) |
self |
n |
166 & Table 37 |
Klockars 68 |
both |
? |
ad (college) |
self |
u |
166 & Table 37 |
Koch 55a 55b |
both |
384 |
ch (5 yrs) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
125 & Table 25 |
Koch 55a 56d |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
154 & Table 33 |
Koch 55a, 56d, 57a |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
166 & Table 37 |
Koch 55a 57a |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr |
teachers' ratings |
f |
140 & Table 29 |
Koch 56b |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr |
teachers' ratings |
n |
147 & Table 31 |
Koch 56b |
both |
384 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
182 & Table 41 |
Koch 56c |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr |
teachers' ratings |
f |
147 & Table 31 |
Koch 56c |
both |
360 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
163 & Table 36 |
Koch 56d |
both |
350 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
157 & Table 34 |
Koch 57a |
sib size (=2) |
192 |
ch (5 - 6 yr) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
103 & Table 19 |
Koch 60 |
both (sib size=2) |
360 |
ch (6 yr) |
siblings' ratings |
f |
97 |
Krinsky 63 |
sib size |
159 |
ad (adult males, |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Krinsky 63 |
soc cl |
182 |
ad (scientists) |
self |
u |
150 & Table 32 |
Laitman 75 |
sib size |
89 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
154 & Table 33 |
Laitman 75 |
sib size |
89 |
teen (jr hi) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Lessing et al 67 |
both |
855 |
ch & teen (grade & hi sch) |
self |
n |
157 & Table 34 |
Lessing et al 72 |
both |
321 |
ch (6th-8th gr) |
self |
n |
157 & Table 34 |
Lessing et al 72 |
both |
238 |
ch (6th-8th gr) |
self |
u |
157 & Table 34 |
Leventhal 70 |
sib size |
145 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
141 & Table 30 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
143 & Table 30 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 256 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
147 & Table 31 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
146 & Table 31 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
150 & Table 32 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
119 & Table 24 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
215 [265? |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
158 & Table 34 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 |
ad (college) |
self |
u |
158 & Table 34 |
Macbeth 75 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
166 & Table 37 |
Macbeth 75, 76 |
sib size |
716 + 265 |
ad (college) |
self |
u |
120 & Table 24 |
MacDonald 71b |
sib size |
768 + 476 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
115 & Table 23 |
MacFarlane et al 54 |
soc cl |
126 to 41**** |
ch (21 months to 14 yr) |
parents' ratings |
f |
160 & Table 35 |
Marjoribanks 79 |
both |
280 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
142 & Table 30 |
Masterson 71 |
sib size |
155 |
college |
self |
f |
120 & Table 24 |
McAllister et al 74 |
sib size (lg |
635 |
teen (9th gr) |
self |
n |
124 & Table 25 |
McArthur 56 |
intrafam (sib size=2) |
172 |
no age given; probably ranges from ch to ad |
parents' ratings |
f |
167 & Table 37 |
McCormick et al 75 |
sib size |
120 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
159 & Table 35 |
Mealiea 73 |
sib size |
148 |
ad (college females) |
self |
f |
103 & Table 19 |
Miller et al 76 |
sib size |
1750 |
ch (1st grade) |
self (?) |
n |
103 & Table 19 |
Miller et al 76 |
controlled for race; did |
1750 |
ch (1st gr) |
beh |
n |
112 & Table 22 |
Miller et al 76 |
both |
1750 |
ch (1st gr) |
teachers' ratings |
f |
182 & Table 41 |
Miller et al 76 |
sib size |
1750 |
ch (1st gr) |
peers' ratings |
f |
181 & Table 41 |
Mukherjee 68 |
soc cl |
472 |
ad (college, India) |
self |
n |
134 & Table 28 |
Munz et al 68 |
sib size (=2 or 3) |
200 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Murray 71 |
both |
709 |
teen (hi sch males) |
peers' ratings |
n |
182 & Table 41 |
Neetz 74 |
sib size |
? |
ch (grade sch) |
teachers' ratings |
n |
147 & Table 31 |
Newbert 69 |
intrafam (sib size=3) |
120 |
ch (1st-8th gr) |
teachers' ratings |
? |
167 & Table 37 |
Newbert 69 |
intrafam (sib size=3) |
120 |
ch (1st-8th gr) |
parents' ratings |
n |
167 & Table 37 |
Nisbet 68 |
sib size |
2410 + 494 |
ad (college males) |
beh |
f |
105 & Table 20 |
Oberlander 71 |
soc cl |
250 |
teen (18 yr old) |
self |
f |
146 & Table 31 |
Oberlander et al 70 |
soc cl |
250 |
teen (age 18) |
self |
f |
146 & Table 31 |
Owyang 71 |
sib size |
82 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Owyang 71 |
sib size (=1 or 2) |
120 |
ad (college) |
self |
f |
158 & Table 34 |
Palmer 66 |
soc cl |
55 |
ad (college males) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Payne 71 |
sib size (text, p. 120, |
1023 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Price 69 |
intrafam (at least |
612 |
ad (adult offspring) |
parents' ratings |
f |
168 & Table 37 |
Purpura 71 |
soc cl |
311 |
teen (hi sch males) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Query et al 73 |
"socially |
50 |
teen (hi sch males) |
self |
f |
120 & Table 24 |
Rhine 68, 69, 74 |
soc cl |
128 |
ch (5th & 6th gr females) |
beh |
f |
112 & Table 22 |
Robertson 71 |
soc cl |
297 |
ch (10-11 yr old males) |
self |
u |
103 & Table 19 |
Robertson 71 |
both |
297 |
teen (14 yr males) |
self |
n |
158 & Table 34 |
Robertson 71 |
soc cl |
297 |
teen (14 yr males) |
self |
u |
160 & Table 35 |
Roodin et al 78 |
sib size |
286 |
ad ("students," |
beh |
n |
130 & Table 27 |
Rosen 61 |
both |
427 + 367 |
ch (11 yr males, |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Rosen 64 |
intrafam |
122 |
ch (11 yr old males) |
self |
n |
95 & Table 17 |
Rosenberg 65 |
sib size |
5024 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
154 & Table 33 |
Rosenberg et al 64 |
sib size |
352 |
ch (4th - 6th grade) |
self |
n |
104 & Table 19 |
Rosenberg et al 69a |
sib size |
352 |
ch (5th & 6th grade) |
self |
n |
139 & Table 29 |
Rosenblüh et al 70 |
soc cl (middle cl) |
199 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
134 & Table 28 |
Sampson 62, et al 67 |
sib size (=2) |
251 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
103 & Table 19 |
Sampson 67 |
sib size (= 1 or 2) |
251 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
150 & Table 32 |
Sampson et al 67 |
sib size |
251 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Sampson et al 67 |
sib size (= 1 or 2) |
251 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
f |
132 & Table 28 |
Sampson et al 67 |
sib size (=2) |
251 |
teen (hi sch) |
beh |
f |
112 & Table 22 |
Schachter 59 |
sib size (?) |
108 |
ad (college females) |
beh |
f |
115 |
Schettino et al 76 |
sib size |
1500 |
college |
self |
n |
128 |
Schmuck 63 |
sib size (=2) |
? |
? (females) |
self |
n |
121 |
Schooler 72a,b,c |
sib size |
3101 |
ad (American |
beh |
n |
119 |
Schwartz 76 |
sib size |
100 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
147 & Table 31 |
Sears 70 |
sib size |
140 |
ch (12 yr) |
self |
n |
171 & Table 38 |
Sells et al 63 |
sib size |
1003 |
ch (3rd-6th gr) |
peers' ratings |
? |
181 & Table 41 |
Sellwood 75 |
intrafam |
128 |
teen (hi sch males) |
self |
n |
151 & Table 32 |
Singer 71 |
both |
4440 |
teen (hi school) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Singer 71 |
both |
4440 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
94 & Table 17 |
Smith 71 |
both |
1415 |
ch & ad (grade sch & college) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Solomon 77 |
sib size (lg vs small |
196 |
ad (college mental |
self |
n |
121 & Table 24 |
Staffieri et al 70 |
sib size |
? |
ch (10-11 yr olds) |
self |
n |
161 |
Stenger 75 |
sib size |
275 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
146 & Table 31 |
Stenger 75 |
both |
240 |
ad (college) |
self |
f |
166 & Table 37 |
Stenning 68 |
soc cl |
? |
ch (10-14 yr, U.S.) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Stenning 68 |
soc cl |
? |
ch (10-14 yr, Mexican) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
Stewart 67 |
sib size (=3) |
100 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
150 & Table 32 |
Stewart 67 |
both (?) |
? |
? |
beh |
f |
119 |
Stewart 67 |
sib size |
100 |
ad (college males) |
self |
n |
165 & Table 37 |
Stokes et al 77 |
both |
6752 |
ad (women) |
self |
n |
124 & Table 25 |
Stotland et al 71 |
not clear; "well-planned" |
? (many) |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
161 |
Stroup et al 65 |
soc cl |
93 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
165 & Table 37 |
Struempfer 73 |
both |
318 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
135 & Table 28 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
intrafam |
120 |
ad (college) |
siblings' ratings |
f |
97 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
sib size (=2) |
80 |
ad (college females) |
self |
n |
140 & Table 29 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
both |
40 |
ch (8-11 yr old males) |
self |
n |
94 & Table 17 |
Sutton-Smith et al 71 |
sib size |
80 |
ad (college females) |
self |
f |
Table 17 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
intrafam |
140 |
ch (3rd-5th gr) |
siblings' ratings |
f |
97 |
Sutton-Smith et al 64 |
sib size (=2) |
137 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
145 & Table 31 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
intrafam (middle-class) |
95 |
ch (5th & 6th gr) |
siblings' ratings |
f |
97 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
sib size |
80 |
ad (college females) |
self |
n |
165 & Table 37 |
Sutton-Smith et al 70 |
sib size |
? |
ad (college) |
self |
f |
161 |
Swanson et al 72 |
sib size |
704 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
158 & Table 34 |
Tomeh 71 |
soc cl |
523 |
ad (college females) |
self |
f |
94 & Table 17 |
Turner 62 |
both |
2175 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
135 & Table 28 |
Vaughn 75 |
sib size |
102 |
ad (college) |
self |
u |
166 & Table 37 |
Vuyk 59 |
both |
125 |
ch (8-12 yr middle cl) |
parents' & researcher's |
u |
167 & Table 37 |
Vuyk 61 |
intrafam (sib size=2) |
868 |
ch & teen (6-16 yr) |
parents' ratings |
f |
167 & Table 37 |
Vuyk 63 |
intrafam (sib size=2) |
520 |
ch & teen (9-19 yr) |
parents' ratings |
u |
167 & Table 37 |
Waters et al 67 |
sib size |
564 |
ad (college) |
self |
n |
120 & Table 24 |
Watkins et al 80 |
sib size |
204 |
ch (11-13 yr Filipino |
self |
n |
154 & Table 33 |
Weidl 77 |
sib size |
97 |
teen (hi sch) |
self |
n |
150 & Table 32 |
Wilks et al 79 |
sib size |
68 |
ch (grade sch) |
self |
n |
151 & Table 32 |
Yando et al 75 |
both |
144 |
ch (5-8 yr) |
beh |
n |
109 & Table 21 |
Yang et al 73 |
soc cl |
128 |
ad (male college, Taiwan) |
self |
n |
133 & Table 28 |
* ad =
adults; ch = children; cl = class
**self = self-report questionnaire or
interview; beh = behavioral measure
*** f = favorable to Sulloway's theory;
u = unfavorable (opposite to Sulloway's predictions); n= no difference; ? =
unclear
****126 declining to 41 (longitudinal study with loss of Ss)
References: Ernst, C., & Angst, J. (1983). Birth order: Its
influence on personality. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Sulloway, F.
J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics, and creative
lives. New York: Pantheon.
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